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What is a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation (MVL)?

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What is a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation (MVL)?

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In the dynamic landscape of business, understanding when and how to wind up a company gracefully is as essential as knowing how to start one. 

Members’ Voluntary Liquidation (MVL) offers a structured pathway for solvent companies in the UK to voluntarily close their doors, ensuring maximum returns for shareholders and compliance with legal standards. 

Dive into this comprehensive guide to grasp the intricacies of MVL, its benefits, and the crucial differences between MVL and its counterpart, Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation (CVL). 

Whether you’re contemplating the end of a successful venture or seeking strategic transitions, this guide elucidates the MVL process, helping you make informed decisions for your business’s future.

What is an MVL or Members’ Voluntary Liquidation?

A Members’ Voluntary Liquidation (MVL) is a formal process through which a solvent company is voluntarily closed down, and its assets are distributed amongst its shareholders. 

This is a legally defined process in the United Kingdom and is guided by the Insolvency Act of 1986.

Typically, a company opts for an MVL when it has sufficient assets to pay off its debts and liabilities in full. 

This differs from a Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation (CVL), where a company is insolvent and unable to pay its debts.

An MVL is often a strategic move initiated when the directors or shareholders of the company believe that the business has fulfilled its purpose or when they decide to retire or move on to different ventures. 

Essentially, an MVL is a controlled, premeditated approach to winding up a solvent company, usually under the guidance of an insolvency practitioner.

Related Post: How to Liquidate Your Company with Debt

What is the Purpose of a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation?

The purpose of an MVL can vary depending on the specific circumstances and strategic objectives of a company. 

One common reason is that the directors and shareholders may feel that the company has achieved its goals and that continuing its operations would not add significant value.

Alternatively, the owners may wish to retire, or they may want to consolidate assets before embarking on a different business venture. 

An MVL can also be a practical decision if the business has become less profitable but is still solvent; by choosing to liquidate in a controlled manner, the owners can avoid accruing debt and damaging their reputation.

In essence, the purpose of an MVL is to provide an efficient, orderly way to close down a solvent business while optimising the return to shareholders and ensuring that all legal obligations are met.

What Are the Benefits of a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation?

Members’ Voluntary Liquidation offers several benefits, not least of which is the potential for tax efficiency.

As it is a form of liquidation for solvent companies, any gains from the distribution of assets are usually subject to Capital Gains Tax rather than Income Tax, which generally has a lower rate. 

Another benefit is that it simplifies the dissolution process.

An MVL is a well-regulated mechanism with clear guidelines and legal procedures, reducing the risk of legal repercussions for the directors.

Thirdly, as the company is solvent at the time of an MVL, creditors are paid in full, which can protect the company’s reputation and the personal reputations of the directors and shareholders involved. 

Lastly, the process allows for an efficient redistribution of tangible and intangible assets so that they can be better utilised in new ventures or investment opportunities.

When is the Right Time to Use an MVL?

Determining the right time to initiate an MVL depends on a variety of factors, including the company’s financial status, market conditions, and long-term objectives. 

A common scenario is when a business has served its purpose, and there is unanimous agreement among directors and shareholders that it’s time to move on.

Additionally, if the business landscape has changed—such as a saturated market or decreased demand for the product or service—an MVL can serve as a strategic way to exit while the company is still solvent. 

Retirement of key company members or a desire to restructure the business can also signal the right time.

The essential factor to consider is the company’s solvency; it must be able to pay off all its debts within 12 months of entering the MVL process.

What is the Process of Members’ Voluntary Liquidation?

The MVL process is structured and regulated by UK law, typically requiring the involvement of an insolvency practitioner.

Initially, the directors must formally declare solvency, stating that the company can pay its debts within a stipulated timeframe. 

This is followed by a shareholders’ meeting where a resolution for voluntary winding-up is passed, requiring at least 75% of shareholders’ approval.

Once the resolution is passed, an insolvency practitioner takes over the process, which includes liquidating assets, paying off debts and liabilities, and distributing the remaining assets amongst shareholders. 

All legal and compliance issues, such as filing necessary forms with Companies House, are also handled during this process.

How Long Does an MVL Take From Start to Finish?

The timeframe for an MVL can vary depending on the complexity of the business and its financial situation.

On average, you can expect the process to take between three to six months.

However, this is not a fixed timeframe. 

Complex cases with numerous assets and intricate financial structures may take longer.

A key element in the duration is the involvement of the insolvency practitioner, who must conduct due diligence, assess assets, pay off debts, and manage the legal processes. 

Another factor is the response time of creditors and tax authorities, which can either speed up or slow down the liquidation process.

Related Post: Limited Company Liquidation Cost

How Much Does a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation Cost?

The costs associated with an MVL can vary widely depending on the complexity of the liquidation process. 

Typically, you will incur charges for the insolvency practitioner’s services, legal fees, and administrative costs for filing necessary documents with regulatory bodies.

Generally speaking, costs could range from a few thousand pounds to tens of thousands, depending on the specific circumstances. 

Discussing and agreeing upon these fees upfront with your chosen insolvency practitioner is important to avoid any financial surprises down the line.

How Does an MVL Affect Any Owed Tax?

One of the most significant advantages of a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation (MVL) is its tax efficiency.

In most cases, any financial gains made from the liquidation are subject to Capital Gains Tax, which tends to be lower than Income Tax.

For individual shareholders, this could mean availing themselves of additional tax advantages, like Entrepreneurs’ Relief, which may further reduce the Capital Gains Tax rate.

However, consulting with a tax advisor to explore this option fully is crucial, as various qualifications must be met to be eligible for such relief.

Moreover, an MVL allows for a clean break from corporate taxation. Once the company is dissolved, it is removed from the Companies House register, ceasing to be a taxable entity.

Any latent corporation tax liabilities are usually settled during the liquidation process, overseen by the insolvency practitioner.

Yet, it’s essential to note that tax affairs in the context of an MVL can be a complex area with various implications.

For instance, anti-avoidance measures such as the ‘Targeted Anti-Avoidance Rule‘ may be applied to prevent the artificial lowering of tax obligations.

 These factors make it imperative to consult a tax advisor knowledgeable in this field.

Their guidance can help you optimise your tax position while ensuring you fully comply with the law.

What is an Insolvency Practitioner, and How Are They Involved in an MVL?

An insolvency practitioner plays a pivotal role in the Members’ Voluntary Liquidation process.

They are licensed professionals specialising in insolvency and are legally required to oversee the liquidation process. 

Upon appointment, they take control of the company’s assets and are responsible for ensuring that all liabilities and debts are paid off in the manner stipulated by law.

They conduct due diligence, assess the company’s financial records, handle communications with creditors, and distribute the remaining assets among shareholders.

Their involvement is essential not only for fulfilling the statutory requirements but also for providing the expertise needed to navigate the complexities of an MVL. 

The insolvency practitioner’s role helps ensure that the process is conducted smoothly, adhering to all legal obligations and optimising the distribution of assets.

What is the Difference Between an MVL and a CVL?

Though both Members’ Voluntary Liquidation (MVL) and Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation (CVL) are procedures for winding up a company, they differ fundamentally in their context and implications. 

The most significant difference is the solvency of the company involved. An MVL is initiated for solvent companies, meaning that the business is capable of paying off its debts within 12 months.

A CVL, on the other hand, is the route for insolvent companies that are unable to pay off their debts. 

The objectives differ too; an MVL aims at an efficient and tax-effective distribution of assets to shareholders, whereas a CVL focuses on satisfying creditors to the best extent possible with available assets.

Furthermore, the legal and financial consequences for directors and shareholders are generally less severe in an MVL, given that it is a planned, voluntary process for solvent companies.

Final Notes On Members’ Voluntary Liquidations (MVLs)

An MVL can be a strategic tool for closing down a solvent business in a manner that maximises returns for shareholders and complies with legal requirements. 

Though it involves costs and necessitates the involvement of an insolvency practitioner, the benefits often outweigh the drawbacks, especially when it comes to tax efficiency and asset distribution.

Understanding when it’s appropriate to utilise an MVL and how it differs from a CVL can help business owners make informed decisions about the future of their companies.

If you’re considering an MVL, it is advisable to consult with legal and financial experts to ensure you are making the best choice for your specific circumstances.

From assessing the right time for liquidation to navigating the legalities and financial obligations, professional guidance can be invaluable in ensuring that the process is conducted efficiently and beneficially for all stakeholders involved.

Ready to Navigate the Complexity of Closing Your Limited Company?

Trust Marchford, Your Experts in Limited Company Closures.

When it comes to making crucial decisions about closing your limited company, you don’t want to navigate the complex landscape alone. 

At Marchford, we specialise in limited company closures, ensuring that you meet all legal obligations while optimising your financial returns.

Whether you’re considering a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation (MVL) or assessing other closure options, our team of qualified experts is here to provide tailored solutions for your unique needs.

For free confidential advice, get in touch today.


Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull is a co-director at Marchford with over 25 years experience as a trained accountant, including lecturing the AAT Accounting Qualification. After specialising in company closures and insolvency, Hannah has, for the last 5 years helped hundreds of directors of struggling limited companies with a wide range of solutions including company closures.


Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull is a co-director at Marchford with over 25 years experience as a trained accountant, including lecturing the AAT Accounting Qualification. After specialising in company closures and insolvency, Hannah has, for the last 5 years helped hundreds of directors of struggling limited companies with a wide range of solutions including company closures.
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