Marchford logo

What is a Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation (CVL)?

If you need help or advice regarding any aspect of liquidating a limited company, we are here to help. Please feel free to contact  the Marchford team today.

What is a Creditors Voluntary Liquidation (CVL)?

Table of Contents

Navigating the intricate waters of financial distress is a monumental task for any company, and the choice to wind up operations is often fraught with complexity and uncertainty. 

In the United Kingdom, one of the principal mechanisms to accomplish this in an orderly fashion is a Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation (CVL).

This procedure is initiated when a company is insolvent and lacks the resources to meet its financial obligations, offering a structured means to close the business. 

A CVL serves as a lifeline for struggling companies, protecting creditors’ interests by maximising the return from the company’s assets.

Understanding the intricacies, costs, and legal implications of a CVL is essential for directors contemplating this course of action. 

This comprehensive guide aims to shed light on what a CVL entails, its usage process, and how it contrasts with other forms of liquidation.

Related Post: How to Liquidate a Company

What is a CVL or Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation?

A Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation (CVL) is a formal insolvency procedure in the United Kingdom.

It’s often initiated by the directors of a company when they ascertain that the business is insolvent and unable to meet its financial obligations.

Unlike compulsory liquidation, where creditors or other parties petition the court for a winding-up order, CVL is voluntary.

The process begins with the company’s directors making the tough decision to cease operations and liquidate the assets to pay off creditors.

In a CVL, the primary responsibility rests on the directors to be transparent and cooperate fully with appointed insolvency practitioners.

The process generally involves holding meetings with shareholders and creditors, settling as many debts as possible through the sale of assets, and eventually dissolving the company.

It is essential to differentiate between a CVL and administrative insolvency processes or Company Voluntary Arrangements, as each has unique procedures and consequences for the company and its stakeholders.

What is a CVL Used For?

A CVL serves multiple purposes, often acting as a lifeline for financially distressed companies.

First and foremost, it allows the business to close in a controlled and orderly manner.

This aids in safeguarding the best interests of the creditors, as the assets are liquidated to pay off as many debts as possible.

It also means that the directors have chosen a proactive path, which can help mitigate potential accusations of wrongful trading or negligence in the eyes of the law.

In addition, a CVL can sometimes preserve the value of the business.

By opting for a voluntary liquidation, the directors can avoid the more damaging consequences of compulsory liquidation, where assets might be sold off hastily and potentially at lower prices.

This way, the CVL aims to maximise returns for creditors and could even lead to better outcomes for employees, who may be entitled to redundancy pay from the government’s Redundancy Payments Service.

What is the Process of Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation?

The CVL process is legally mandated and follows a specific set of steps.

Initially, directors must hold a board meeting to pass a resolution that the company should be put into liquidation due to its insolvency.

The resolution has to be supported by a majority of the board.

The directors then appoint an insolvency practitioner, who drafts a statement of affairs to provide a financial snapshot of the company’s assets, liabilities, and overall financial health.

Subsequently, separate meetings with shareholders and creditors are arranged.

During these meetings, the resolution to liquidate is presented and requires approval.

For shareholders, a 75% majority is needed to pass the resolution, whereas creditors also get to vote, but their approval is not mandatory.

Once the resolution passes, the insolvency practitioner assumes control, liquidates the company’s assets, and distributes the proceeds to the creditors in a specific order of priority, as set out by law.

Unsecured creditors usually receive payment after secured and preferential creditors have been settled.

Eventually, the company is dissolved, and its name is struck off the Companies House register.

What is an Insolvency Practitioner, and How Are They Involved in a CVL?

An insolvency practitioner plays a crucial role in the CVL process.

They are qualified professionals authorised to act on behalf of insolvent companies or individuals. 

Their involvement begins with providing initial advice to the directors about the feasibility and appropriateness of initiating a CVL.

Once appointed, they draft the statement of affairs, administer the creditors’ meetings, and serve as the liquidator during the process.

Their duties extend to selling off the company’s assets, distributing proceeds to creditors, investigating the company’s affairs, and reporting any misconduct.

They are obliged to act impartially and in the best interests of all creditors.

Failure to adhere to these duties can result in professional penalties, so their role is considered essential and highly regulated.

How Long Does a CVL Take from Start to Finish?

The duration of a CVL can vary widely depending on the complexity of the case, the number of assets to be liquidated, and the intricacies involved in satisfying the creditors’ claims.

Generally speaking, the process can take anywhere from several months to over a year. 

The initial stages, involving board meetings and consultations with insolvency practitioners, can happen relatively quickly.

However, asset liquidation and settlement of creditor claims can be time-consuming, especially if there are legal disputes or if the assets are not easily sellable.

Related Post: Cost of Liquidating a Company

How Much Does a CVL Cost?

The financial implications of initiating a Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation (CVL) are an important consideration for any company contemplating this insolvency procedure.

Costs can be a significant factor and are, to some extent, influenced by the complexity of the liquidation process, the size of the company, and the nature of its assets and liabilities.

The principal cost incurred in a CVL is usually the insolvency practitioner’s fees.

This fee can vary widely and is generally influenced by the complexity of the case and the amount of work required.

An insolvency practitioner may charge an hourly rate or a fixed fee, and it’s not uncommon for fees to range from several thousand pounds to tens of thousands of pounds.

The insolvency practitioner’s fees cover tasks such as assessing the company’s financial position, preparing the necessary documentation, conducting meetings with creditors and shareholders, liquidating assets, and distributing the proceeds to creditors.

In addition to the insolvency practitioner’s fees, there are other associated costs that can add to the financial burden.

Legal costs are often incurred for seeking advice on the legality of the liquidation process and any potential issues that could arise during the procedure.

Court fees may also apply, although these are generally less significant than other costs.

Advertisement expenses are another cost to consider.

Public notices need to be placed in specific publications to inform potential claimants and interested parties about the liquidation.

This is a mandatory requirement and cannot be skipped, adding another layer to the overall cost of a CVL.

Administrative costs can also accumulate over the duration of the liquidation process.

These include costs for correspondence, postage, and other miscellaneous expenses that are incurred while communicating with creditors, employees, and other stakeholders.

It’s also worth noting that the costs of a CVL can sometimes be offset by the sale of the company’s assets.

However, this is often insufficient to cover all the expenses, and the shortfall typically becomes a claim in the liquidation, further reducing the returns to creditors.

Therefore, it’s advisable to have a transparent discussion with your chosen insolvency practitioner about all potential costs involved in the CVL process at the outset.

Given these variables, there’s no one-size-fits-all answer to how much a CVL will cost.

However, being aware of these costs can help directors and shareholders decide whether to proceed with a CVL.

It’s always advisable to consult multiple insolvency practitioners to get a range of quotes and understand what services are included in their fees before making a decision.

How Does a CVL Affect Any Owed Tax?

A CVL has implications for outstanding tax liabilities.

During liquidation, the insolvency practitioner will consider all debts, including taxes owed to HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC), and distribute the proceeds accordingly.

HMRC is generally considered an unsecured creditor but has secondary preferential status for certain taxes like employee National Insurance Contributions and PAYE (Pay As You Earn).

It is essential to note that a CVL does not absolve directors from their personal responsibilities related to unpaid taxes.

If it’s found that they have engaged in wrongful trading or other misconduct, they may be personally liable for the company’s tax debts.

What is the Difference Between an MVL and a CVL?

MVL (Members’ Voluntary Liquidation) and CVL are both types of voluntary liquidation but serve different purposes and are initiated under different circumstances.

An MVL is used when a company is solvent, but the directors and shareholders decide to wind up the company, often for strategic, tax, or other non-financial reasons.

The company must declare that it can pay off its debts within 12 months, and the process aims to return surplus funds to shareholders.

In contrast, a CVL is initiated when a company is insolvent and unable to pay its debts.

The focus is on paying off the creditors, and shareholders are unlikely to receive any surplus funds.

Given the financial distress associated with a CVL, it usually involves more stringent regulations greater scrutiny, and could have potential implications for the directors’ future business endeavours.

Final Notes On Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidations

A Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation is a complex but often necessary process for insolvent companies looking to wind up their business in an orderly fashion. 

Directors must weigh this option carefully, keeping in mind the legal implications, costs, and intricate procedures involved.

While the decision to enter into a CVL is never easy, it can sometimes be the most responsible course of action, safeguarding the interests of creditors and limiting the potential liabilities of the directors. 

Seeking professional advice from an insolvency practitioner is crucial in making an informed decision about whether a CVL is the appropriate strategy for your financially distressed company.

Ready to Make the Next Move? Let Marchford Guide You Through the Complexity of Limited Company Closures

Facing the challenging decision of winding down your business?

Navigating the intricacies of limited company closures can be overwhelming.

Don’t go it alone.

Trust the experts at Marchford to guide you every step of the way, ensuring a transparent, compliant, and efficient process.

Why Choose Marchford?

  • Specialised expertise in limited company closures
  • Transparent pricing with no hidden costs
  • Authoritative advice tailored to your unique situation

Don’t let the stress of company closure consume you. Marchford’s dedicated team is here to simplify the complex, providing peace of mind during this critical transition.

For free confidential advice, get in touch today.


Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull is a co-director at Marchford with over 25 years experience as a trained accountant, including lecturing the AAT Accounting Qualification. After specialising in company closures and insolvency, Hannah has, for the last 5 years helped hundreds of directors of struggling limited companies with a wide range of solutions including company closures.


Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull

Hannah Paull is a co-director at Marchford with over 25 years experience as a trained accountant, including lecturing the AAT Accounting Qualification. After specialising in company closures and insolvency, Hannah has, for the last 5 years helped hundreds of directors of struggling limited companies with a wide range of solutions including company closures.
Get free, confidential company liquidation advice today.

Enter your details and a client advisor can find you the right solution.

By submitting this form, I give Marchford permission to contact me. More information can be found in our privacy policy here